I am happy to release Computer Science Book for Class - XII. Write a program to input employee no, name basic pay and to find HRA, DA and http ://brocapazbebuh.gq 4. Computer Science () . The identifier cout is a predefined object of ostream class that represents the . 14 – 3 evaluates to text file “brocapazbebuh.gq ”. Sumita Arora C++ Class 12 PDF solutions: CBSE class XII students learn computer science. Most of the schools recommend using a book written by Sumita.

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written on the title page of the answer-book by the candidate. Please check that this COMPUTER SCIENCE. Time allowed: 3 . Define a' class STOCK in C++ with following description: . long Cno; char Name [20], Mobile[12]; public. ISC Computer Science Text Book for Class 12 - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The preffered text book for ISC class . Chapter 1: Revision Tour of Class XI. Chapter 2: COMPUTER SCIENCE () Theory. brocapazbebuh.gq UNIT 12 (6). 2. Object Oriented Programming in C++ a) Introduction to OOP using C++. 2 (1). 4 (1) ifstream Fin(“brocapazbebuh.gq”); char ch;.

An operand is an entity on which an operator acts. For example: What are Arithmetic Operators? Arithmetic Operators are used to perform mathematical operations. The list of arithmetic operators are: Define Association. Operators are executed in the order of precedence. The operands and the operators are grouped in a specific logical way for evaluation. This logical grouping is called as association.

Tabulate the order of precedence for arithmetic operators. What are relational operators? The list of relational operators are: A relational expression is constructed using any two operands connected by a relational operator. What are logical operators? Logical operators combines the results of one or more conditions. The Logical operators have lower precedence to relational and arithmetic operators. What do you mean you mean by conditional operator? A ternary operator?: The general syntax is E1?

E3 where E1,E2,E3 are operands. What are assignment operators? It is used to assign the result of an expression on the right hand side to the variable on the left hand side of the operator. What are data types? Mention its types. Data Types are the kind of data that variables hold in a programming language. They can be broadly classified into the following three categories.

What is user-defined data type? Users can define a variable that would represent an existing data type. User-defined data types are: It helps in creating meaningful data type identifiers, that would increase the readability of the program.

The syntax: Write a note on enumerated data type. Monday, Tuesday … is the list of values also called as enumeration constants or numeric constants. What is Storage class? Name the four storage specifiers. The four storage specifiers are auto, static, extern and register. Auto variables are not initialized with appropriate values based on their data type. These variables get undefined values known as garbage. What is the purpose of void data type?

To indicate the a function does not return a value To declare a generic pointer What is derived data type?

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These are built from the basic integer and floating type built in type or user defined data types. Each element is accessed using the positional value of the element in the array. The position numbering commences from zero. What do you mean by pointer variables? Pointers provide the means through which the memory locations of a variable can be directly accessed. Addresses are numbers just as our house numbers. The address number starts at NULL and goes up from there..

How ordinary variables are different from pointer variables? But the addresses stored in pointer variables are not of the same data type as this pointer variable is pointing to. It is a unary operator. What are variables? Variables are user defined named entities of memory locations that can store data.

The name assigned to a data field that can assume any of a given set of values is defined as the variable. How do you declare a variable? Variables are allocated memory to store data. Compiler allocates memory, based on the data type of the variable. Hence variables must be declared before they are used. How do you declare pointer variable? The variable ptr can only store addresses that hold integer values.

What do you mean by modifier? Mention its impact of modifiers. The impact of modifiers: What is the use of sizeof operator?

Write the importance of typecast? The statement float 7 converts the numeric constant 7 to float type. Type cast is achieved by prefixing the variable or value with the required data type. The syntax is: Variables used in the declaration statements need to be declared and defined before they are used in a program. Declaration statements are used to declare user defined data type identifiers, function headers, pointer variables.

If a declaration also sets aside memory for the variable it is called as definition. What are control statements or control structures?

The two major categories of control structures are Decision making statements and Looping statements. What is continue statement? It is implemented in two forms. In an nested if.. For example Working of the above example: Every action block should be terminated with a break statement. Otherwise all action blocks are executed sequentially from the point where the control has been transferred based on the condition.

This is implemented as follows: The following program demonstrates the use of switch statement. List the rules for the formation of nested loops. The inner loop must be completely nested inside the loop, irrespective of the test expression. Define Looping.

Loops execute a set of instructions repeatedly for a certain number of times.

A looping block consists of two segments viz. The control statement checks the condition, based on which directs the control back to the body of the loop to execute the segment repeatedly.

Explain the general working of Loop. Loops are unconditionally executed at least once, if the condition is placed at the end of the body of the loop.

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Based on the position of the condition, the loops are classified as Entry-Check loop and Exit Check Loop. In general, a looping process would work in the following manner: RA Explain do … while loop. The construct of a do.. Identify the 1. Identify the statements that form the body of the loop 3. The test expression B. How many times will the loop be executed?

What is the output of the program? What type of loop is this? Enters the loop 2. Prints the square of num 3. Increments the control variable by 2 4.

Evaluates the condition , based on which the control is transferred to step 2 5. Or Explain Entry check loops.

The basic syntax is: The control exits the loop once the test expression is evaluated to false. Initialises the control variable num to 2 2. Prints the square of the value stored in num 4.

Increments num by 1 5. Control is transferred to step 2 6.

The control variable is initialized the first time when the control enters the loop for the first time 2. Test condition is evaluated. The body of the loop is executed only if the condition is TRUE. Hence for ;; loop is called as entry controlled loop. On repetition of the loop, the control variable is incremented and the test condition will be evaluated before the body of the loop is executed. The loop is terminated when the test condition evaluates to false.

The following program illustrates for ;; loop: What is break and continue statement? Under certain situations one desires to terminate the loop , irrespective of the test expression. The continue statement forces the next iteration of the loop to take place, skipping any code following the continue statement in the loop body.

What is nested loop. Mention the rules for the formation of nested loop. It is possible to nest loop construct inside the body of another. An outer loop and inner loop cannot have the same control variable, as it will lead to logical errors 2. The inner loop must be completely nested inside the body of the outer loop. Define functions. Functions are also the executable segments in a program. The starting point for the execution of a program is main. What are the advantages of functions.

Reusability of code function fact is executed more than once A function can be shared by other programs by compiling it separately and loading them together. What is the purpose of using function prototype statement? With function prototyping, a template is always used when declaring and defining a function.

When a function is called, the compiler uses the template to ensure that proper arguments are passed, and the return value is treated correctly.

Any violation in matching of the arguments or the return types will be treated as errors by compiler, and flagged at the time of compilation. What is the general syntax of using function prototype statement? Declaration of a function is made through a function prototype. What is calling a function? A function can be called or invoked from another function by using its name. The function name may include a set of actual parameters, enclosed in parentheses separated by commas.

Explain call by value method in function with suitable example. Explain call by reference method in which the change in formal parameter is reflected back in the actual parameter. This method copies the values of actual parameters parameters associated with callstatement into the formal parameters the parameters associated with function header , thus thefunction creates its own copy of arguments and then uses them. Hence, changes or modifications that are made to formal parameters are not reflected inthe actual parameters.

Call by reference [Mar 08, 11]In this method, the called function arguments - formal parameters become alias to the actualparameters in the calling function.

This means that when the function is working with its ownarguments, it is actually working on the original data. Look at the following depiction: List down the rules for actual parameters. The actual parameters can be passed in the form of constants or variables or expressions to the formal parameters which are of value type.

The actual parameters can be passed only as variables to formal parameters of reference type. Why do you think the prototype int max int, int is valid?

In a function declaration, the names of the arguments are dummy variables and therefore they are optional. The variables in the prototype act as place holders. What are default arguments? The default value is given in the form of variable initialization.

The default arguments facilitate the function call statement with partial or no arguments. The default values can be included in the function prototype form right to left, i. One can assign default values to the formal parameters of a function prototype.

Call statement is power b, x.. The default values can be included in the function prototype form right to left, We cannot have a default value for an argument in between the argument list. What are inline functions? They execute faster but require more memory space.

While this is true, we also know that call statement to a function makes a compiler to jump to the functions and also to jump back to the instruction following the call statement. This forces the compiler to maintain overheads like STACKS that would save certain special instructions pertaining to function call, return and its arguments. This reduces the speed of program execution.

Hence under certain situations specially, when the functions are small fewer number of instructions , the compiler replaces the function call statement by its definition ie.

This feature is called as inlining of a function technically called as inline function. To make a function inline, one has to insert the keyword inline in the function header as shown in the above Program.

They are: Local scope 2. Function scope 3. File scope 4. A local variable is defined within a block. The scope of a local variable is the block in which it isdefined. A local variable cannot be accessed from outside the block of its declaration. Local variables are not known outside their own code block.

Local variables exist only while the block of code in which they are declared is executing. A local variable is created upon entry into its block and destroyed upon exit.

Function scope The scope of variables declared within a function is extended to the function block, and all sub-blocks therein. The variable flag of the above program is accessible in the function main only. The life time of a function scope variable, is the life time of the function block.

The scope of formal parameters is function scope.

File scope A variable declared above all blocks and functions precisely above main has the scope of a file. The scope of a file scope variable is the entire program.

The life time of a file scope variable is the life time of a program. Scope Operator The scope operator reveals the hidden scope of a variable. Now look at the following program. That is the scope of the function is restricted to the class specified in the function header. Several different classes can use the same function name.

What is an array? Write its different types. An array is a collection of variables of the same type that are referenced by a common name. Arrays are of two types: They are One dimensional and Multi dimensional arrays. Write the syntax of single dimensional array. Give an example. Write a note on memory allocation of single dimensional array. What are strings? OR What do you mean by array of characters?

The declaration of strings is same as numeric array. For example, i. What character is used to terminate the character array? Strings are otherwise called as literals, which are treated as single dimensional array of characters. Write the syntax of gets and getline functions. To treat spaces as part of string literal, then one has to use gets defined in stdio.

What are the two methods to display the contents of the string? There are two methods to display the contents of string. Write a short note on write function. The two parameters required for write function are identifier string characters, and no. Write the syntax and purpose of strlen function. Write the syntax and purpose of strcmp function. Write the syntax and purpose of strcpy function.

Explain the string manipulators of strlen , strcpy and strcmp. What is two dimensional array? For instance, an array marks [3] [4] is a table with 3 rows, and 4 columns. The number of elements in a 2-dimensional array is determined by multiplying the number of rows with number of columns. In this example - The array marks has 12 elements. The subscripts always commence from zero. The subscript for rows is from 0 to 2, and for columns - 0 to 3.

How do you declare a two dimensional array? Type array-id [Rows] [Columns]; Example: What are the data types used in two dimensional array? Explain the memory representation of 2 D arrays. The elements are stored either 1. Write a note on memory allocation of two dimensional array. What is matrix? A matrix is a set of mn numbers arranged in the form of a rectangular array of m rows and n columns.

Matrices can be represented through 2-D arrays. What is array of strings? The size of first index rows determines the number of strings and the size of second index column determines maximum length of each string. How does an array behave when passed to a function? The actual parameter is passed only by the identifier, ignoring dimension. What is a class? A class is a way to bind the data and its associated functions together.

What are the two parts of class specification? Write the general form of class declaration. What are the three access specifiers of class members? What effect does the visibility label private has on the members of a class? Specifying private visibility label is optional. By default the members will be treated as private if a visibility label is not mentioned.

The members that have been declared as private, can be accessed only from within the class. What effect does the visibility label protected has on the members of a class? The members that have been declared as protected can be accessed from within the class, and the members of the inherited classes.

What effect does the visibility label public has on the members of a class? The members that have been declared as public can be accessed from outside the class. What is encapsulation? What is mean by data hiding? What is data abstraction? Write the characteristics of member function of a class? Members are further classified as Data Members and Member functions. Data members are the data variables that represent the features or properties of a class.

Member functions are the functions that perform specific tasks in a class. Member functions are called as methods, and data members are also called as attributes. How are the class members accessed? For example, the call statement to the function execute of the class student may be given as: List out four characteristics of member function used in program development.

Member functions can access the private data of a class. The return type of a member function can be of object data type. Member functions can be of static type. Write a note on creating objects. The declaration of an object is similar to that of a variable of any basic type. Objects can also be created by placing their names immediately after the closing brace of the class declaration. Give some valid points about static data members of a class. No other initialization is permitted Only one copy of the member variable is created and is shared by all the other objects of its class type Its scope or visibility is within the class but its lifetime is the lifetime of the program.

What are the different methods of creating objects? In Method 2, the member function display is declared within the class, and defined outside the class.

Write a note on array of objects? Write a note on memory allocation of objects. Memory space required for the member variables are only allocated separately for each object.

Separate memory allocations for the objects are essential because the member variables will hold different data values for different objects. Memory for Objects for p1 and p2 is illustrated: Write a short note on Polymorphism. The word polymorphism means many forms poly — many, morph — shapes. The term overloading means a name having two or more distinct meanings. NCERT textbooks are officially followed by the UP board of examination, but from the examination perspective, it is important for every students in all classes.

Previously there were two papers for each subject in class The board also decided to introduce only one paper. This will reduce the number of final board examination days. Books have been colleagues of youth for a long time.

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CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Book | NCERT Books for Class 12 Computer Science

Books have opened a vista to the wide entryway of learning, instruction, investigation and information. We not just gain from a book, book additionally improves our capacity of creative energy. NCERT books are the books that score an unmistakable full stamp with regards to satisfying the previously mentioned criteria. They are unmistakably the best educative books you can lay your hands on.

It resembles as though you are educated by an individual coach. The writings are informed with ends; this encourages the understudy to look upon the primary features without experiencing the whole content. These books are all around educated and impartial. Particularly for history and topography. You can make short notes for yourself that will help in better recognition. These books are interactive to the point that understudies will appreciate it instead of feel its weight.

Perusing any kind of books is dependably an advantage.Consequently from rich to poor all can approach it. However, writing the programs themselves is a skill as well, which cannot be fully dependent on the development environment. A looping block consists of two segments viz. Traditional data processing services comprise punching data from manually filled forms, images or publications; preparing databases and putting them together.

In general, a looping process would work in the following manner: How does an array behave when passed to a function? Image Capturing. Every action block should be terminated with a break statement. What are default arguments? A relational expression is constructed using any two operands connected by a relational operator.

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