by looking at what has to happen in order to run a C program. This paper, greatly expanded, is the basis for the book C Traps and Pitfalls (Addison-Wesley, . This book helps to prevent such problems by showing how C programmers get themselves into trouble. Each of the book's many examples has trapped a. In addition to its examples, C Traps and Pitfalls offers adviceon: avoiding off-by- one errors understanding and constructing function declarations understanding.
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C Traps and Pitfalls aims to encourage defensive programming by showing how other people, even experienced professionals, have gotten them- selves into. Identifierc-traps-pitfalls. Identifier-arkark://t2z OcrABBYY FineReader Ppi ScannerInternet Archive HTML5 Uploader. C Traps and Pitfalls. eBook Title for Download:C Traps and Pitfalls (Format: pdf, Language: English). Plot: Author(s) Book:Andrew Koenig Publish Year
The drain seal on the condensate drain line of a draw-through hvac system has an entirely different purpose. Moreover, the operating conditions are vastly different and much more demanding.
Contrary to what many in the industry seem to believe, the need for a seal on a drain of an hvac system has nothing to do with connection to the sanitary sewer. In fact, all three of the regional plumbing codes in this country prohibit direct connection of the condensate drain line to the sanitary sewer. A drain seal is required on a draw-through system because the drain pan operates at a negative pressure partial vacuum. It is these conditions that cause the malady — property damage and health threats — referred to in the industry as dry trap syndrome.
No Water Source Unlike the conditions that prevail in building plumbing systems, there is no source of water continually available to keep a P-trap filled. Thus, it is often dry and ineffective.
There are two primary reasons why conventional condensate traps are frequently dry and ineffective: condensate evaporation and condensate leakage caused by freeze-damaged traps in outside locations. Anytime an hvac system is not providing cooling — and no moisture is removed from the air — for a period of a few weeks, evaporation will destroy the seal formed by condensate. In addition, at most latitudes in this country, condensate in a trap in an outside location is subjected to freezing conditions, which can damage the trap and destroy its seal.
Under these circumstances, the level of maintenance effort required to prevent dry trap operation is generally regarded as impractical. In fact, in some instances, successful maintenance is virtually impossible.
C Traps and Pitfalls
Operating Conditions of Dry Trap Syndrome There are two normal operating conditions where hvac systems experience dry trap syndrome: during winter heating operation and during startup for cooling operation.
During winter operation, dry trap syndrome has an effect on both human comfort and health. The ingestion of odorous gas sometimes from the sanitary sewer occurs frequently.
Reported incidences are widespread. The ingestion of toxic gas occurs less often but when it occurs, the consequences are far more serious.
Carbon monoxide CO, a product of incomplete combustion in water heaters, furnaces, automobiles, etc.
Incidents of CO poisoning are reported frequently as news items. Among these, there is documented evidence of persons being poisoned by carbon monoxide introduced into inhabited space through an hvac system operating without a drain seal. One remedy for this malady, although maintenance intensive, is to manually fill the trap with water — frequently.
Starting up an hvac system for cooling, when it has a dry trap, creates conditions that impose a very high cost on building owners and managers in terms of excessive service calls, maintenance efforts, equipment damage, and surrounding property damage.
Immediately following startup with a dry trap, the internal negative pressure created by the hvac system acts to hold condensate in the drain pan. At the same time, it causes air to enter the condensate drain connection, often at a very high velocity.
Before condensate can flow from the drain pan, enter the trap, and form a seal, it must rise to a level in the pan which is slightly greater than the internal negative pressure. When the negative pressure in inches of water, or in. This condition accounts for the rash of service calls reporting flooded floors and ceiling drips often erroneously attributed to roof leaks every spring and summer when the cooling season begins. Condensate overflow and the associated damage are not the only consequences of operating with a dry trap during startup.
High-velocity air entering the drain pan through the dry trap entrains condensate and propels it onto internal components, into the fan, and onto insulated walls and ducts. The resulting wetness not only damages the systems, it creates a fertile growth place for contaminating organisms, which in turn degrades indoor air quality IAQ. Observations show that condensate in the drain pan becomes entrained by the entering air when its velocity reaches about 16 mph.
This value is exceeded in most systems operating with a dry trap.
Relatively small, 5- to ton hvac units frequently operate with internal pressures near 0. At this pressure, the velocity of the air entering through an empty trap is about 30 mph. Sperber This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract We tested the value of ethanol fuel as a killing solution in terms of sampling efficiency species richness and accumulated abundance and DNA preservation of Ensifera ground-dwelling specimens.
We evaluated the DNA preservation efficiency of the killing solutions and of alternative storage solutions.
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Ethanol fuel was the most efficient killing solution, and allowed successful DNA preservation. This solution is cheaper than other preserving liquids, and is easily acquired near field study sites since it is available at every fuel station in Brazil and at an increasing number of fuel stations in the U. We recommend the use of ethanol fuel as a killing and storage solution, because it is a cheap and efficient alternative for large-scale arthropod sampling, both logistically and for DNA preservation.
For open habitat sampling with high day temperatures, we recommend doubling the solution volume to cope with high evaporation, increasing its efficacy over two days. Keywords: Killing solutions, Molecular tools, Taxonomy, Large-scale fieldwork, Brazil Introduction Several sampling techniques are used to assess biodiversity of different animal species King and Porter All present advantages and disadvantages, so the choice is at the discretion of the researcher.
Small organisms e.
Pitfall traps are a good alternative for collecting ground-dwelling arthropods Dahl This kind of trap is inexpensive and easy to handle, allowing both rich and abundant samples.
It can be used for taxonomic although some coloration characters may be lost , ecological, morphological and molecular studies Gurdebeke and Maelfait , Schoereder et al. One of the main challenges is deciding which killing solution to use in the pitfall traps, which depends on the objectives of each study. As far as sampling involves financial, environmental and researcher's effort costs, the ideal solution should minimize those costs and maximize the utility of the sampled material.
The utility of the samples may extrapolate strictly ecological purposes, and should involve other scientific areas, such as morphology and molecular biology. Therefore an ideal should also preserve the specimens' tissues and DNA Stevens et al. Regarding methodological necessities in pitfall sampling, a good killing solution should minimize evaporation, as far as many pitfall trap regimes check traps every 2 weeks or more.
A good solution should not be toxic to the researcher nor environmentally harmful. Regarding sampling efficiency, a good solution should kill quickly so as to reduce the escape of specimens. In addition, the trap solution cannot be prohibitively expensive, and must be readily available. Finding a solution that meets all of these specifications is not easy.
C Traps and Pitfalls pdf free
Many types of solutions have been used and tested, for example water and detergent, which is inexpensive but accelerates the decomposition of tissues and genetic material Schmidt et al. Mixtures of formaldehyde and ethylene glycol Barber , Sperber et al. Other solutions contain salt brines Sasakawa and acetic acid Gurdebeke and Maelfait , which do not preserve tissues and can alter gonads, genitalia and eggs Sasakawa An additional class of solutions contains different concentrations of commercial alcohol Sperber et al.
In Brazil, for example, it is illegal to carry large amounts of commercial alcohol on long journeys, which could hinder its use in extensive field expeditions.
Here we propose the use of ethanol fuel as a cheaper and logistically feasible alternative. In Brazil, ethanol fuel and commercial alcohol have some differences.
While the alcoholic concentration The largest difference is, however, the quantity of gasoline present in ethanol fuel up to 30 milliliters per liter , that is absent in commercial alcohol BR Ethanol fuel is available throughout Brazil, at all fuel stations, and at an increasing number of fuel stations in the U.Highly recommended for those willing to know the ins and outs of C.
Java" Puzzlers: Seleme, Carlos F. As far as sampling involves financial, environmental and researcher's effort costs, the ideal solution should minimize those costs and maximize the utility of the sampled material.
Reported incidences are widespread. The reporting of methodology can also be streamlined and the repeatability and analysis of the research simplified as a body of robust approaches is developed.
An excellent second book on C; wish I'd had it way back in my first C programming course.
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