Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and. Theodore S teachmg. 2. 3 The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching. 31 The third view of language can be called the interactional view. It sees. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching -Approaches and Methods in for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Second Edition Jack C. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, 3rd Edition, Jack C. Request Full-text Paper PDF TESOL methods: Changing tracks, challenging trends.
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TEFL courses in person and tutored those taking distance your lesson plan so that they can talk Methods for Teaching Learning Strategies in the Foreign. The third edition of this popular and well-known book is an updated and easy-to- use resource for any teacher or teacher trainer who wants to. An extensively revised and updated edition of this popular and accessible text. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Third edition is an extensive.
Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published Second edition 11th printing Printed in the United States of America A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Language and languages — Study and teaching. Rodgers, Theodore S.
Theodore Stephen. Rodgers Frontmatter More information Preface This is a revised and reorganized version of the first edition, originally published in More than half of the contents of this new edition has been specially written for this edition. Since the first edition was pub- lished, it has become one of the most widely referred to books on teach- ing methods. Since then, however, a great deal has happened in language teaching.
In planning this new edition, we have therefore made a number of substantial changes. We have divided the book into three main parts: Part I deals with major trends in twentieth-century language teaching. The chapters in this section are substantially the same as those in the first edition but include an updated list of references. Part II deals with alternative approaches and methods. This section describes approaches and methods that have attracted support at different times and in different places throughout the last 30 or so years, but have generally not been widely accepted or, in some cases, have not maintained substantial followings.
The International Phonetic Association was I let go of the handle. O ne of the earliest goals of th e associarion was to improve the Gouin's emphas is on the need to present new teaching items in a context teaching of modern languages.
It advocated that makes their meaning clear, and the use of gestures and actions to convey the mea nings of utterances, a re practi ces that later beca me part 1. Educators recog- 5. But the discussed and defended in books, articles, and pamphlets. Henry Sweet ideas and methods of Marcel, Prendergast, Gouin, and other innovators argued that sound methodological principles should be based were developed outside the context of established circles of education 0 11 a scientific analysis of language and a study of psychology.
In his and hence lacked the means for wider dissemination, acceptance, and book The Practical Study of Languages he set forth principles for implementation. They were writing at a time when there was not suf- the develop ment of teaching method.
These included fici ent organizational structure in the language teaching profession i. T his hegan L '1':tllgillg is to be taught in terms of the fOllr skill s of listening, to change towa rd the end of the nin eteenl'h CC Il1'IIr y , wh c,; 11 :1 speaki ng, reading, and wr it ing; l'C cOl1 ccrl"cd effort arose in whi ch rh e illl l' l'l:s tS of l't: ol'l;I"lI'liJld cd 'I.
Irt ll gll :lg' tc. He argued that training in phonetics would enable teachers to pronounce the lan- Gouin had been one of the first of the nineteenth-century reformers to guage accurately.
Speech patterns, rather than grammar, were the fun- attempt to build a methodology around observation of child language damental elements of language. In he published his views in an learning. Other reformers toward the end of the century likewise turned influential pamphlet, Language Teaching Must Start Afresh, in which their attention to naturalistic principles of language learning, and for he strongly criticized the inadequacies of Grammar Translation and this reason they are sometimes referred to as advocates of a "natural" stressed the value of training teachers in the new science of phonetics.
In fact at various times throughout the history of language Vietor, Sweet, and other reformers in the late nineteenth century shared teaching, attempts have been made to make second language learning many beliefs about the principles on which a new approach to teaching more like first language learning.
In the sixteenth century, for example, foreign languages should be based, although they often differed consid- Montaigne described how he was entrusted to a guardian who addressed erably in the specific procedures they advocated for teaching a language.
Among those who tried to apply natural principles to language classes in the nineteenth century 1. Sauveur , who used intensive oral interaction in the oral-based methodology; target language, employing questions as a way of presenting and eliciting 2. He opened a language school in Boston in the late s, and training; his method soon became referred to as the Natural Method. The German scholar F.
Franke wrote on the 5. According to Franke, a language 6, tran slation shou ld be avo ided, although the mother tongue could be used could best be taught by using it actively in the classroom. Rather than in order to explain new words or ro check comprehension.
Learners would then be approach to language teaching, one based on a scientific approach to able to induce rules of grammar. The teacher replaced the textbook in the study of language and of language lea rning.
They reflect the begin- the early stages of learning. Speaking began with systematic attention nings of the discipline of applied lin guistics - that branch of language to pronunciation. Known words could be used to teach new vocabulary, study concerned with the scientific study of second and foreign language using mime, demonstration, and pictures. The writings of such scholars as Sweet, Vietor, These natural language learning pri nciples provided the foundation for and Passy provided suggestions on how these applied linguistic principles wl'"t came to be known as the Direct Method, which refers to the most widely could best be put into practice.
None of these proposals assumed the kllown of the natural methods. Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method status of a method, however, in the sense of a widely recognized and inlroduced it in France and Germany it was officially approved in both uniformly implemented design for teaching a language.
But parallel to cOlIlll'ries at the turn of the century , and it became widely known in the United the ideas put forward by members of the Reform Movement was an SI:ltcs through its use by Sauveur and Maximilian Berl itz in successful com- interest in developing principles for language teaching out of natu rali stic I1h..
Berlitz, in fact, never used the terlll; he referred to principl es of language learning, such as arc seen in firsl' Llngll:lge In practice it stood for quisition. Oral comm unication skills were built up in a ca refully graded progression dent's native tongue would have been a more efficient route to com- organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and prehension.
The Harvard psychologist Roger Brown has documented similar prob- 4. Grammar was taught indu ctivel y. He described his frustration S. New teaching points were introduced ora ll y.
Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pic- convey the meaning of Japanese words, when translation would have tures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
By the s, use of the Direct Method in noncom mercial schools in Europe had consequently declined. In France and Germany it was grad- These principles are seen in the following guidelines for teaching oral ually modified into versions that combined some Direct Method tech- language, which are still followed in contemporary Berlitz schools: niques with more controlled grammar-based activities. The European popularity of the Direct Method in the early part of the twentieth century Never translate: demonstrate Never explain: act caused foreign language specialists in the United States to attempt to Never make a speech: ask questions have it implemented in American schools and colleges, although they Never imitate mistakes: correct decided to move with caution.
A study begun in on the state of Never speak with singl e words: use sentences foreign language teaching concluded that no single method could guar- Never speak too much: make students speak much antee successful results. The goal of trying to teach conversation skills Never use th e book : use your lesson plan was considered impractical in view of the restricted time available for Never jump aro und: follow your plan foreign la nguage teaching in schools, the limited skills of teachers, and Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student the perceived irrelevance of conversation skills in a foreign language for Never speak too slow ly: speak normally the American college student.
The study - published as the Never speak too quickly: speak naturally Colema ll Report - advocated that a more reasonable goal for a foreign Never speak too loudly: speak naturally language course would be a reading knowledge of a foreign language, Never be impatient: take it easy cited in Titone achieved through the gradual introduction of words and grammatical structures in simple reading texts.
The main result of this recommen- The Direct Method was quite successful in private language schools, dation was that reading became the goal of most foreign language pro- such as those of the Berlitz chain, where paying clients had high moti- grams in the United States Coleman The emphasis on reading vation and the use of native-speaking teachers was the norm.
But de- continued to characterize foreign language teaching in the United States spite pressure from proponents of the method, it was difficult to ini- until World War II. The British applied linguist Henry classroom foreign language learning and fai led to consider the practical Sweet had recognized its limitations.
It offered innovations at the level realities of the classroom. In addition, it lacked a rigorous basis in ap plied of teaching procedures but lacked a thorough methodological basis. Its linguistic theory, and for this reason it was often criticized by the more main focus was on the exclusive use of the target language in the class- academically based proponents of the Reform Movement.
The Direct room, but it fai led to address many issues that Sweet thought more basic. Method rep resented the product of enlightened amateurism.
It was per- Sweet and other applied linguists argued for the development of sound ceived to have several drawbacks. First, it required teachers who were methodologica l principles that could serve as the basis for teaching tech- native speakers or who had nativelike fluency in the foreign language. In the s and s applied linguists systematized the prin- It was largely dependent on the teacher's skill, rather than on a textbook, ciples proposed earlier by the Reform Movement and so laid the and not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language to foundat ions for what developed into the British approach to teaching adhere to the principles of the method.
Critics pointed o ut that strict English as a foreign language. The Practical Study of Languages. Lo ndon: Oxford centuries? We have seen fro m this histori ca l sur vey some of the questio ns Uni versity Press.
Washing- the past: ton, D. What should the goals of language teach ing be? Should a lan guage co urse try to tea ch co nversatio nal pro fi ciency, rea ding, trans lation , o r some other skill? What is the basic natu re of lan guage, and how will th is affect teaching method?
What are th e princip les fo r rhe selectio n of lang uage content in la nguage teaching? Wh at principles of organiza tion, sequenci ng, and presentation best faci li - tate learning? What should th e role o f the na tive language be? What processes do lea rn ers use in ma stering a lang uage, and ca n these be incorpo rated into a metho d? What teaching techniq ues and activ ities wo rk best and under what circumstances? Pa rti cular methods di ffer in the way they address these iss ues.
But in o rder to understand the fundamenta l nature of method s in language teaching, it is necessary to conceive th e notion of method more system- atica ll y. This is the aim of the next chapter, in which we present a model fo r the descriptio n, ana lysis, and compa rison of methods.
This mo del will be used as a fram ework fo r our subseq uent discussions and analyses of particul a r language teaching methods an d philosophi es. Bibliography Brown, R. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search.
Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Volume Gabriela Tavella. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation.W e hope that rhe analYSIS of la nguages. In practice it stood for quisition. In fact at various times throughout the history of language Vietor, Sweet, and other reformers in the late nineteenth century shared teaching, attempts have been made to make second language learning many beliefs about the principles on which a new approach to teaching more like first language learning.
He proposed the first "structural syllabus," Although the Grammar-Translation Method often crea tes fru stration advoca ting that learners be taught the most basic structural patterns for studen ts, it makes few demands on teachers. Cambridge, Mass.
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